By Hildegard Westphal, Bernhard Riegl, Gregor P. Eberli
Carbonate sediments are of accelerating relevance for documents of earlier environmental stipulations and for affordable purposes in parts of geothermal strength and hydrocarbon reservoirs. complicated interplay of actual and chemical parameters with organic parameters determines the structure and composition of carbonate sedimentary our bodies. This e-book closes a number of the nonetheless latest gaps in our figuring out of the impact and interaction of actual, chemical, and organic parameters with carbonate sedimentation. An figuring out of this interplay is not just required for trustworthy prediction of reservoir caliber but additionally for a powerful interpretation of environmental stipulations long ago and the current. it's written through geologists for geologists for you to supply an simply available review of the massive volume of suitable details supplied via the neighbouring sciences. The process of the e-book is to record the fashionable depositional environments of 3 classical parts of carbonate deposition, every one attribute for a selected sedimentological surroundings (isolated platform, hooked up shelf, ramp) for you to examine either the diversity of actual, organic and chemical parameters and their sedimentary reaction. This ebook provides a entire compilation in accordance with info from released paintings and unpublished theses, and the combination of those info so one can extract formerly undiscovered relationships among the mentioned parameters and carbonate deposition.
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Extra resources for Carbonate Depositional Systems: Assessing Dimensions and Controlling Parameters: The Bahamas, Belize and the Persian/Arabian Gulf
Density currents flowing off the bank-top is another mechanism responsible for carrying sediment or even eroding sediment (Wilson and Roberts 1992; Wilber et al. 1993). Density currents can form during winter cold fronts that lower temperatures of bank-top water below that of surface waters of adjacent deeper water areas. Density currents also form in the summer when evaporation is high and bank-top waters become more saline thus raising water density (Wilson and Roberts 1992; Smith 2001). These density plumes entrain ambient water as they flow off the bank and descend to just below the mixed layer at which point they spread laterally along isopycnals (Hickey et al.
16). Chemical dissolution rates reported for the Bahamas are fairly constant with depth and are about 13 g/m2/year (Hoskin et al. 1986). Physical abrasion depends on water motion and for an experiment above the intertidal zone averages at 55 g/m2/year (Hoskin et al. 1986). 5 Geometries of Facies Belts Relatively simple facies relationships, so called “level-bottom” or “facies prosaic” geometries, are typical for the Bahamas (Fig. 12; Enos 1974, 1983; Enos and Perkins 1977). , Florida Bay or the Belize Lagoon.
13 Growth history of carbonate margin settings. (a) Leeward margin, LBB. With sea-level rise, margin reefs develop then are buried by sand transported offbank as sea-level continues to rise (From Hine and Neumann, 1977). (b) Leeward margin, GBB. (c) Windward margin, Joulters Cay, Northern Andros. As the margin is initially flooded, the antecedent topography controls the initial accumulation of pelletal mud and sand. With increasing sea-level, ooid formation begins, a marine sand belt develops along the margin edge and creates its own hydrodynamic regime that controls further shoal development.
Carbonate Depositional Systems: Assessing Dimensions and Controlling Parameters: The Bahamas, Belize and the Persian/Arabian Gulf by Hildegard Westphal, Bernhard Riegl, Gregor P. Eberli