By Robert Arp
In the period of "big data," technology is more and more details pushed, and the potential of pcs to shop, deal with, and combine gigantic quantities of knowledge has given upward thrust to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. utilized ontology bargains a technique for the association of medical details in computer-tractable shape, drawing on thoughts not just from laptop and knowledge technological know-how but in addition from linguistics, common sense, and philosophy. This booklet offers an creation to the sphere of utilized ontology that's of specific relevance to biomedicine, overlaying theoretical elements of ontologies, top practices for ontology layout, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use.
After defining an ontology as a illustration of the categories of entities in a given area, the booklet distinguishes among other kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and indicates how utilized ontology attracts on extra conventional principles from metaphysics. It provides the center gains of the elemental Formal Ontology (BFO), now utilized by over 100 ontology initiatives all over the world, and gives examples of area ontologies that make the most of BFO. The publication additionally describes internet Ontology Language (OWL), a standard framework for Semantic net applied sciences. all through, the publication presents concrete ideas for the layout and building of area ontologies.
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Additional info for Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology
However, as will be made clearer in the chapters to follow, it is essential that they be carefully distinguished, and that primary importance should be given in ontology construction for purposes of scientific research to the accurate representation of universals. Relations in Ontologies The final element in our definition of an ontology is the reference to the relations holding among universals and defined classes. The general idea of a relation is familiar from common sense. A woman typing on a laptop in a Manhattan coffee shop stands in several relations to several other entities, and each one of those other entities is involved in multiple relations to further entities.
Some ontologies contain terms which do not refer to any entities at all because—unknown to the developers—some type of error has been made. But even in those cases the terms in question are included in the ontology with the intention that they should refer. ”) The relation between term and referent is to be understood by analogy with the relation of external directedness that is involved, for instance, when we assert that “Oxford” refers to Oxford, or “Ronald Reagan” refers to Ronald Reagan. This is true even where, as in ontologies such as the Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO),2 terms refer to entities—for example, mental processes—that are internal to the mind or brain of human beings.
19 So, an allergy is defined not as a type of medical condition but rather as a piece of data within the Microsoft HealthVault. Use-mention confusions need not be fatal in the hands of skilled computer modelers; they are, though, fatal when it comes to building coherent ontologies. ” So far we have discussed in great detail the first part of this definition: the idea that an ontology is a representational artifact, and we have argued that the best way to understand the goal of building ontologies as representational artifacts is to see ontologies as representing entities in reality rather than concepts or other kinds of mental representations in the minds of human beings.
Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology by Robert Arp