By Tom A. Ranker, Christopher H. Haufler
This ebook provides the main genuine wisdom approximately ferns and lycophytes. particularly relating to their biology (life cicles, turning out to be, etc.) and evolution (relationship one of the teams, aneuploidy, specialization methods, etc.). each specialist fern researcher needs to get involved with this ebook.
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Extra resources for Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes
2003). , 2001), but ferns do not use microtubules (Kadota and Wada, 1992d). The circular structure of F-actin was observed along the edge of chloroplasts on the surface of plasma membranes in A. capillus-veneris protonemata (Kadota and Wada, 1989a, 1989b). The structure was found only when chloroplasts gathered at a light irradiated area and settled there. It could not be located on a chloroplast under darkness or on chloroplasts located far from a microbeam irradiated area (Kadota and Wada, 1992c), suggesting that the structure plays a role in keeping the chloroplast in the light irradiated area.
1 Growth cessation When protonemal cells cultured under continuous red light are transferred to darkness, the growth rate is reduced and ultimately cell growth stops (Kadota and Furuya, 1977). , 1980). 5. The timing of growth retardation and the length of cell growth during the dark period before cell division occurs are also controlled reversibly by red/far-red light irradiation just before transferring to the dark (Kadota and Furuya, 1977). Protonemal cell growth may be controlled in conjunction with the timing of cell division by the same phytochrome system.
The pattern of microﬁbril arrangement follows the change in microtubule pattern, suggesting that the microﬁbril pattern is controlled by microtubules. The numbers indicate hours after blue light irradiation. ) Gabrys (1999) reported the ecological signiﬁcance of chloroplast movement in fern sporophytes. They reported that A. capillus-veneris and Pteris cretica showed clear photorelocation movement under both strong and weak light. However, Adiantum caudatum, found in high light environments, does not show photorelocation movement and Adiantum diaphanum, living in shady environments, shows only weak photorelocation movement.
Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes by Tom A. Ranker, Christopher H. Haufler