By Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratynski, Wladyslaw Bugala
This is a concise and complete evaluate of the biology, ecology, and administration of Norway spruce. Written via 25 specialists within the box, and richly illustrated, it integrates vintage and modern literature. greater than 2000 works are pointed out within the textual content, which highlights uncomplicated examine and forestry practices in imperative and jap Europe. the massive diversity of subject matters lined contains the species’ morphology, its body structure and meals, and its ecology.
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Additional info for Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce (Forestry Sciences)
2). It is comprised of thick-walled parenchyma cells with irregularly thickened, but not lignified walls. A ring of vascular bundles interrupts the crown. In late autumn a gap arises below the crown due to the autolysis of pith cells (Fig. 2). Young needles or needle primordia in vegetative embryonic shoots are spirally arranged on the shoot axis in a specific pattern (phyllotaxis). Occasionally the phyllotaxis may change during shoot ontogeny, whereas the position of the primary vascular system is more stable.
Nine spruce species occur in North America (Table 1). Picea glauca and P. mariana are the most economically important species. These species form forests throughout much of Canada and the northernmost regions of the United States. In the northeastern United State, Picea rubens SARG. is also an important spruce species. It grows in the Appalachian Mts up to an altitude of about 2000 m. P. ) CARR. occurs in western North America and attains an altitude of 1000 m, while P. engelmannii (PARRY) ENGELM.
THE CARPATHIAN DISJUNCTION Norway spruce is naturally absent in the lower Beskid Mts (Beskid Niski), the lowest range of the western Carpathians and in the Pogórze Dynowskie and Pogórze Rzeszowskie regions in Poland for a distance of about 60 km. The lack of Norway spruce in these regions was described in the latter half of the 19th century (RIVOLI 1884; BRODOWICZ 1888; REHMAN 1895). This disjunction was depicted cartographically by WIERDAK (1927b) and subsequently adopted on the map of Norway spruce distribution in central Europe (KULCZYŃSKI and WIERDAK 1928; SZAFER 1937).
Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce (Forestry Sciences) by Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratynski, Wladyslaw Bugala