Download Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations by Laurence G. Britton PDF

By Laurence G. Britton

ISBN-10: 0816908001

ISBN-13: 9780816908004

Written through Laurence Britton, who has over two decades' adventure within the fields of static ignition and method hearth and explosion risks study, this source addresses a space no longer generally coated in approach safeguard criteria or literature: knowing and decreasing strength risks linked to static electrical energy. The booklet covers the character of static electrical energy, features and potent energies of other static assets, recommendations for comparing static electrical energy risks, normal bonding, grounding, and different options used to manage static or hinder ignition, gases and beverages, powders and hybrid combos.

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Extra resources for Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations

Example text

Numerous other MIE evaluations give Lycopodium’s MIE as approximately 20 mJ. 5. Ignition Probability Considerations Assuming that the effective energy of bulking brush discharges with respect to dust ignition is a continuum from about 1 mJ up to maybe 10–20 mJ, the infrequent occurrence of silo explosions even where easily ignitable dust is present suggests that most discharges have effective energies at the low end of this range (6–5).

For flame propagation to result, these two random events must coincide in time and place such that a local ignition occurs, then the small flame kernel so formed must propagate into a surrounding flammable mixture without being quenched. 2, and 6-5. 1. Effective Energy Also known as “equivalent energy,” this is the spark ignition energy of the least easily ignitable mixture that can be ignited by a particular ignition source, such as a brush discharge under defined geometrical conditions. The maximum effective energy is the largest effective energy exhibited by a particular category of ignition source,such as the entire category of 18 2.

The maximum energy is 112–225 mJ for charge transfers in the range 25–50 mC. 3). The disparity can be explained if bulking brushes are less effective in igniting dust clouds than gas mixtures of equal spark ignition energy. Many dusts have MIEs much less than the 5–10 mJ maximum effective energy of positive brush discharges established by gas ignition tests. 1). Relative to gas mixtures having the same spark ignition energies, it appears that the efficiency 20 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY of dust cloud ignition by nonspark discharges is only about 10%.

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Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations by Laurence G. Britton

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