By Parviz Kambin
Univ. of California, la. good points emphasis on immunotherapy for crucial anxious approach cancers. studies key components wanted for immune responses in the mind. Surveys heterogeneous pathobiology of mind tumors and demanding situations for immunotherapy, and gives present info on scientific immunotherapy trials. DNLM: mind Neoplasms--therapy.
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Additional resources for Arthroscopic and Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Text and Atlas
B) Illustration demonstrating cross section of two cannulated obturators. which permits their use together prior to insertion of an oval cannula. ally from the opposite side in order to inspect and resect nuclear tissue under direct visualization. A meaningful use of arthroscopes and endoscopes in the ﬁeld of spinal surgery was not realized until 1988, when the anatomical and radiographic appearance of the posterolateral annulus was described for safe positioning of instruments adjacent to the spinal canal (42,56).
Additional instruments used for arthroscopic and endoscopic spinal surgery. From top to bottom, upbiting forceps, straight punch forceps, deﬂecting tube and ﬂexible-tip forceps, punch forceps, deﬂecting suction forceps, and a variety of trimmer blades (disco shavers). Uniportal Approach A 5 × 5 mm or 5 × 8 mm id cannula is commonly used for uniportal access to the herniated disc fragments in the lumbar region (1,2,5) (Fig. 8A,B). A larger-diameter cannula may also be telescoped over the 5 × 5 mm id cannula to provide wider access to the intervertebral disc.
40 Kambin Fig. 13. (A) Gross anatomy of annulus ﬁbrosus and NP in young cadaver specimen. The nucleus has been injected with methylene blue. Note, however, the thickness of the annulus ﬁbrosus anteriorly and posterolaterally. (B) Cotton-ball appearance of nucleus in adolescence (arthroscopic view). Anatomy of Lumbar Spine 41 Fig. 14. (A,B) Arthroscopic view of NP in a 45-yr-old male following interdiscal injection of diluted indigo carmine. Note the unstained partially collagenized nucleus mixed with stained soft nuclear tissue.
Arthroscopic and Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Text and Atlas by Parviz Kambin