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By Leo van den Berg

ISBN-10: 008023156X

ISBN-13: 9780080231563

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It is more realistic, however, to identify more or less homogeneous groups of households showing conformity in spatial behaviour and in the environmental qualities they require. Such groups could be defined according to such socio-economic criteria as age, social status, income, or education. For each of these groups a welfare function can be specified, distinguished from others by the weighting assigned to the various welfare potentials; obviously, one socio-economic group of households may value employment more than environment, while another group's preferences may be just the opposite.

G. when a new industrial factory ousts a recreation ground—but in most cases the spill-over is the indirect result of effects on transport and traffic. An additional increase in traffic may make provisions less accessible; the construction of a new road, on the contrary, may make them more so. It is the public authorities' responsibility to distribute public money wisely, taking into account the various interdependences. They may first approach their task in a static way, asking: given a certain situation, and disregarding future developments, what is the best allocation?

The term "industries" should be understood here to include institutions like corporate organiz- 16 Urban Europe ations which play an important part in the development of such urban facilities as office buildings, shopping centres, and housing schemes. On the other hand, the establishment of an industry may have negative consequences in terms of increased traffic congestion, parking problems, environmental nuisance, or increased tension on the labour market. A new establishment can shatter the competitive conditions within a sector to such an extent as to jeopardize the continuity of existing firms.

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A Study of Growth and Decline. Urban Europe by Leo van den Berg

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