By Edwin A. Lyon
Recipient of the 1994 Anne B. and James B. McMillan Prize
This finished examine offers a historical past of latest Deal archaeology within the Southeast within the Nineteen Thirties and early Nineteen Forties and makes a speciality of the initiatives of the Federal Emergency aid management, the Civil Works management, the Works growth management, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the nationwide Park carrier, and the Smithsonian Institution.
using basic resources together with correspondence and unpublished reviews, Lyon demonstrates the good value of the hot Deal initiatives within the heritage of southeastern and North American archaeology. New Deal archaeology remodeled the perform of archaeology within the Southeast and created the foundation for the self-discipline that exists this present day. With the present emphasis on curation and repatriation, archaeologists and historians will locate this quantity precious in reconstructing the historical past of the initiatives that generated the numerous collections that now fill our museums.
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Additional info for A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology
Webb and Funkhouser thought the mound and cemetery were related to the Gordon and Fewkes sites in Tennessee excavated by Myer. 72 After a visit to the Page site in the summer of 1928, Webb and Funkhouser excavated there in the summer of 1929. They found types of stone graves unknown in Kentucky and huge ossuaries and crematory pits. They investigated eighteen of the sixty-seven mounds they found at the site. Webb and Funkhouser searched the area for evidence of a village but found none. They concluded that three cultures were represented on the site: the oldest was represented by a layer of extended stone graves overlain by the ossuaries and crematory pits and covered by a surface layer of stone box graves.
Pearce supported his archaeological research for ten years using this source of funds. His field supervisors ranged from well trained to untrained. Most of the reconnaissance and many of the excavations were carried out by A. T. Jackson, who had no formal education in archaeology. Field methods were crude, with concentration on mounds and burials and little interest in stratigraphy. Between 1920 and 1935 University of Texas field crews dug in more than 125 sites in east Texas, most in the northeastern part of the state.
While he admitted that early records were not complete, they had been synthesized by Swanton and could be used effectively by archaeologists. ,,94 But he recognized that nonmaterial factors must also be considered, including linguistic groups and social and political organization. Despite his recognition of the difficulty of defining a culture area, Stirling believed that the Southeast was comparable to culture areas such as the Southwest. He knew that "a culture area after all is an arbitrary and artificial device whereby a certain region characterized by distinctive traits is set apart for purposes of consideration.
A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology by Edwin A. Lyon