By John C. Kricher
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Extra resources for A field guide to California and Pacific Northwest forests
Most of the soot studies were conducted for laboratory scale candlelike laminar diffusion flames because they allow researchers easy access to laser optics and other measurement systems that require well-controlled laboratory conditions. These studies found that soot is actually a cluster consisting of small primary soot particles. The average diameter of the mature primary soot particle produced by small laminar diffusion flames was identified by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope to be approximately 20 to 50 n m (1 n m = 10"^ m ) .
When small solid samples were exposed under constant heat flux, they increased their temperature, released pyrolysis products and eventually emitted smoke. The amount of smoke can be measured by a light-scattering device or can be collected on a filter paper for weight measurement. When a pilot ignitor is placed over the sample, the sample can be ignited to study material flammability and flame spread characteristics (Fernandez-Pello, 1995; Kashiwagi, 1994; Tewarson and Ogden, 1992; Babrauskas, 1988).
The amount of smoke can be measured by a light-scattering device or can be collected on a filter paper for weight measurement. When a pilot ignitor is placed over the sample, the sample can be ignited to study material flammability and flame spread characteristics (Fernandez-Pello, 1995; Kashiwagi, 1994; Tewarson and Ogden, 1992; Babrauskas, 1988). The flame spread occurs in horizontal, upward, and downward directions with and without an external (radiation) heat source. , 10 cm wide X 30 cm long for flame spread tests, Saito et ah, 1989), but some of them are designed for large scale upward spread tests (Orloff et al, 1975; Delichatsios et ah, 1995).
A field guide to California and Pacific Northwest forests by John C. Kricher